Progress will likely first improve the efficiency of therapeutic neuroprostheses, but sooner or later, technologies will also be considered that aim to enhance the capacities of the healthy brain. Along these lines, neuroprostheses that create direct connections between the brain and the internet, or that facilitate entirely new forms of communication based directly on brain activity are not inconceivable.
Neurotechnological Progress: The Need for Neuroethics
Simply put, what can the tools of brain science really do? Giordano, Thus, I believe that some balance of precautionism and assertivism is better suited, if not required, to enable effective neuroethical address Giordano, a; ; a. Capacities —of the science and technology in question;. In such situations, a more casuistic approach may be required to provide prior exemplars that may serve as comparitors from which plots of near- to mid-term future trajectories can be developed. Force planning employs a multidisciplinary and multifaceted approach to appraise strategic needs set forth in strategy, establishes requirements to meet these needs, and selects capabilities that will optimally suit operational requirements as projected over a defined time frame ten to fifteen years.
- When One Door Opens.
- Account Options;
- A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance?
This process entails analyzing resource constraints, changing environments, and risks e. Recent recommendations, such as those offered by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues and federal guidelines and regulations e. Although some needs and values may be common to many if not all cultures, others will differ. To account for this, we have endorsed a cosmopolitan approach that can be articulated within particular communitarian contexts through adapting certain existing principles and the development of others. We have proposed that a defined percentage of the total budgets of national initiatives dedicated to brain research be allocated to addressing key NELSI arising in and from funded neuroscientific projects Giordano and Shook, Specifically, we advocate a nonagnostic approach, in which there is targeted address of the NELSI that could likely be generated by the science that would be conducted under particular requests for proposals RFPs.
Working in concert, efforts of federal and private i. Indeed, learning must precede positive change, and absent this learning, change can evoke false hopes or fear, and give rise to misdirected action—often with dire consequences. But equally, I appeal for any and all neuroethico-legal deliberation to be soundly based upon the realities of brain science and its actual capabilities, limitations, and uses i.
Moreover, while ethical deliberation and explications may be vociferous, such discourses can be vacuous unless there is directed effort to inform the development of guidelines and policies Giordano, c; Giordano and Shook, However, the pace of scientific and technological development often outstrips that of policy formulation. While on one the hand, this could be viewed as enabling deep and equivocal discourse about science and technology, and its societal implications and effects, on the other, it can rightly be seen as rendering policy to be post-facto and reactive, rather than reflexive and proactive.
Shakespeare Hamlet , 4.
This work was supported, in part, by funding from the William H. Giordano ed.
Neurotechnology-Centered Convergence | SpringerLink
Neuroscience and the Future of Chemical-Biological Weapons. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Giordano, and B. Gordijn eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, — Giordano, ed. Neurotechnology: Premises, Potential and Problems. There are many more that explored this in classic and current SF. Or is neuroscience—and the biology of the brain—applicable only to SF film?
Premises, Potential, and Problems, 1st Edition
Another intriguing—yet unanswered—question: why is it that classic psychotic symptoms such as thought-insertion or thought-broadcasting make for such compelling SF and cyberpunk plots? How is it that some authors, such as Philip K. Appropriately, both past and future converge in SF. Suppression of behaviors driven by unwanted memories can potentially be used as a treatment strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD and other anxiety disorders in which maladaptive behaviors may stem from the retrieval of fearful memories.
Such retrieval can occur following exposure to a cue previously associated with a fearful event. Although a desirable treatment outcome would be to break the association between the cue and the fearful event, a complete unlearning is seldom observed, and therefore the fear response tends to relapse. In animal studies, associative fear memory is typically acquired in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, in which a neutral conditioned stimulus CS , such as a tone, is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus US , such as a foot-shock, resulting in a conditioned fear response to the CS.
The most widely used strategy to suppress behaviors driven by fear memories is extinction training, in which repeated presentations of the CS in the absence of the US result in a reduction in the conditioned fear response. In a further study published in The Journal of Neuroscience, Graham and Richardson further expands this line of research, showing that FGF2 facilitates extinction of fear memories in adult rats by acting in the basolateral amygdala BLA.
More specifically, the authors show that rats with FGF2 infused into the BLA immediately after extinction training exhibit less freezing to the presentation of the conditioned stimulus CS compared with vehicle controls and to FGF2-treated rats that did not receive extinction training. The authors provide further evidence that FGF2 is a powerful extinction enhancer by showing that four times the amount of extinction training was required for control rats to exhibit levels of performance as low as those induced by postextinction FGF2 treatment.
Furthermore, the authors found that FGF2 infusion into the BLA after extinction attenuated the renewal of fear response when the rats were tested in the original context. Finally, US shock -induced reinstatement of the conditioned fear response was abolished by FGF2 treatment.
Together, these findings suggest that FGF2 activation in the BLA not only enhances extinction of fear response, but also prevents its relapse, and therefore may provide an ideal therapeutic strategy for anxiety disorders. But what if such knowledge is used for nefarious purposes? This is where the dilemma comes in. What if either corporate or government agencies began to use such methods to effect change either in population groups, enemies, or warfare scenarios? Going, going, gone: the where and why of memory erasure Jee Hyun Kim says the notion of total extinction does not cause erasure — rather it is a new learning that opposes the original learning.
In animals and humans, changing the environment from the one in which extinction has been shown to bring back the original fear or addiction behaviour. Fear is gone, in other words, for good: extinction is erasure in juvenile rats. She goes on:. Maybe one day you will be able to erase memories of an ex-lover like Joel and Clementine in the movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. I would like to erase my own memories of the past wrongdoings so I can feel better about myself.
But it will probably make me a worse person. Whether memory erasure is ethical or not is outside my scope.
Interestingly, a study published in Science last year showed that opioid injected into the spine, not the brain, erased memory trace of previous electrical stimulation present in the spine. This made me think that perhaps to achieve memory erasure we need to go beyond the brain. In the case of alleviating traumatic memories in PTSD or reducing drug craving it has great benefits, but what if we could simply forget a relationship that ended badly?
Our memories — good or bad — form parts of our identities and simply removing aspects of our character may have serious consequences.